Tematic Collection of Articles „Gender Equality in Defence System – Accomplishments and trends“
Tematic Collection of Articles „Gender Equality in Defence System – Accomplishments and trends“ has appeared as result of two-day international conference with the same name held on in the Belgrade in 2015 and organized by the Strategic Research Institute and UNDP/SEESAC organization with the aim of exchaging experince in the field of gender equality with foreign countries, but also to combine experince of local and military sectors. Work on this collection was conducted in the year of 15th anniversary of the implementation of Resolution 1325 of the UN Security Council – Women, Peace and Security, which is the cornerstone of international concern for gender and the rights of women and girls in conflict and post-conflict areas.
Security and Defence Aspects of the Republic of Serbia’s Accession to the European Union
During the period from 2009 to 2012, Strategic Research Institute realised the project "Security and Defence Aspects of the Republic of Serbia’s Accession to the European Union". The results of this extensive research were published in the study with the same name, which was promoted in the beginning of July 2014, in the Central Military Club in Belgrade. Study suggests possible directions and forms of participation of Serbian Army in the activities of Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union (EU CSDP), which provides support to further process of Accession of the Republic of Serbia to the European Union. The research team, which involved experts from Serbian Army and the Ministry of Defense, and other scientific institutions of the Republic of Serbia, divided into six sub-teams because of its high number, offers answers to certain dilemmas and issues related to capabilities of the Defense System of the Republic of Serbia to participate in CSDP.
Women in the Security Sector: A Regional Perspective
The idea for making a collection of thematic papers "Women in Security Sector – A Regional Perspective" came from the international conference "Women in Security Sector – UNSCR 1325" held on October 14th and 15th, 2010 in Belgrade, organized by the Strategic Research Institute of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Serbia with the financial support from the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Defence. During the Conference, the achievements and limitations regarding the implementation of the UNSCR 1325 were discussed, as well as the regional countries approaches to the implementation of the Resolution, and the role of women in armed conflicts, peacekeeping and peace building operations. The significant part of the Conference was related to concrete suggestions on how to improve the regional cooperation in the area of security and gender equality. Some presentations and discussions announced some interesting approaches and opened new questions. The interest has been shown for a wider context indicating the existence of need for broadening the presentations and discussions because of broader actualization.
In Step with Time – Ministry of Defence and Serbian Armed Forces on the Path of Gender Equality Objectification
…The study of Dr. Jovanka Saranovic and Dr. Zoran Kilibarda “In step with time – Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces of Serbia on the way of objectification of gender equality” is systematically elaborated scientific work which is based on the theoretic groundings and methodologically correct research in focus of which is the possibility of women engagement in the defense activities. It consists of scientifically supported findings about the characteristics of female population, up to date experiences of women engagement in the formation duties in the army, the possibilities of women engagement in the defense activities, motivation of secondary school youngsters, especially girls, for military academy. Part of the study presents the program framework of National Action Plan for implementation of the resolution SB UN 1325, with focus on the aims and tasks of Ministry of Defense and Army of Serbia in objectification of gender equality. The study can be of great use in educative and scientific work, as the textbook literature, as well as the instructive material for research projects in this area…
Defence from Cyberspace Threats
The study "Defence from Cyberspace Threats" by Dejan Vuletić came from the implementation of the same project. The study is analyzing various definitions and features of cyberspace. Cyberspace threats are elaborated through the following chapters: computer system attacks, cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and cyberwarfare. The concluding chapter elaborates the cyber attacks defence which is presented through recommendations, critical information infrastructure protection, and strategy for cyberspace security.
Handbook on Defence System of the Republic of Serbia
Within the cooperation between the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Serbia and the OSCE Mission to Serbia, and within the scope of the project "Consolidation of Democratization Process in the Security Sector", the Strategic Research Institute published a Handbook on Defence System of the Republic of Serbia. In three chapters, on hundred pages and with schematic preview of organization which makes the contents clearer, the following is presented: basic defence system terminology, legislative basis, strategic-doctrinary and planning documents, authorities of state bodies in defence management, structure and jurisdiction of organizational entities of the Ministry of Defence, as well as the organization, missions, tasks, and units of Serbian Armed Forces. The contents of the Handbook is primarily aimed to the Members of Parliament of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia and to expert services, as well as to all the other interested structures within state administration, public sector, and civil society.
Security and Defence Aspects of the Republic of Serbia’s Accession to the European Union
Proceedings „Security and Defence Aspects of the Republic of Serbia’s Accession to the European Union“ was a result of the roundtable organized by the Strategic Research Institute. Within the roundtable, on March 30th, 2010, the representatives of the Ministry of Defence, Serbian Armed Forces, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Interior, Government of the Republic of Serbia European Integration Office, Faculty of Political Science, Faculty of Security Studies, Criminal Justice and Police Academy, and NGO sector took part. The organization of the roundtable and publication of the Proceedings were part of work on the same research project of the Strategic Research Institute.
Serbia in Contemporary Geostrategic Surroundings
Proceedings „Serbia in Contemporary Geostrategic Surroundings“comprise speeches from the conference held on 21st September 2009 in cooperation of the Strategic Research Institute, Institute of International Politics and Economics and Hanns Seidel Foundation for the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. Proceedings consist of 36 papers on contemporary geopolitical processes, geostrategic position of the Republic of Serbia, global interactions and future of the Republic of Serbia, as well as contemporary understanding of security and energy geostrategy. Papers are thematically divided into three parts: „Serbia in Contemporary Geo-Political Surroundings“, „Serbia in Contemporary Geo-Security Surroundings“ and „Serbia in Contemporary Geo-Economy Surroundings“.
Military Profession in Serbia: Review and Perspectives
Proceedings of scientific conference entitled “Military Profession in Serbia: Review and Perspectives”, held on March 30-31, 2009, and organized by Strategic Research Institute from Defence Policy Department of Ministry of Defence, contains papers from authors – participants of the conference coming from various organizations of MoD and Army, as well as from civilian faculties, institutes and NGO. Total of the 27 papers are sorted in three thematic areas: “Military profession and society”, then “Career and status of military officers”, and “Profiles of military officers and new security challenges”.
Simulation in Research of Modern Warfare Physiognomy
Actual modes of engagement of the military, and characteristics of modern warfare above all, call for different methods and approaches in theirs investigation and studying. Requirements and expectancies are more demanding, but available and permitted effectives and resources are running down. Solutions are seen in a technical modernization and organizational improvements, but also in searching for new doctrinal concepts. Simulation modeling and its different applications have important role in this efforts. One of them is a Swarmig concept, which is presented in details. Swaming concept is a direct consequence of one wider context known as network-centred warfare. Potential and usability of the Swarming concept comes from basic idea that smaller forces could be produce greater effect on the battlefield. Also, this work contains basic information about possibilities and different applications of simulation modeling in a military domain, as well as some views on the overall changes in the military known as the revolution in military affairs. Other concepts, like Data farming, and characteristics of military simulation modeling are presented in short and that could be a starting point for future research like this one.
The “Civil Emergencies” collection of papers includes proceedings from the International Scientific Conference “Civil Emergencies” which took place on January 28-29, 2009 in Belgrade. This Conference was part of the project “Democratization of the Security Sector in Serbia” realized by the SRI, Defense Policy Sector of the Serbian MoD and OSCE Mission in Serbia. The bulletin consists of the following parts: “Definition of Emergency Situations”, “Managing Emergency Situations”, “Other Countries’ Experience in Managing Emergency Situations” and “Current Status and Building Capacity for Managing Emergency Situations in Serbia”. The bulletin from the International Conference “Emergency Situations” is a useful resource for all scientists and researchers who study the management of emergency situations.
Emergencies: How to Manage Them?
The conference “Emergencies” was organized by the SRI and Serbian OSCE mission. It was held on January 18 and 19, 2009 in Belgrade, as part of the project “Democratization of the Security Sector in Serbia”. The goal of the conference was to exchange experiences and scientific achievements among national and international experts in the field of managing emergency situations. The focus was the roles of the Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces in situations caused by non-military factors. 19 national and international experts presented the experiences of their institutions and governments regarding managing emergency situations. Representatives from Belgrade University, the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, and Ministry of Health and local government also attended this conference. Experts from Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Norway and Italy presented their experiences regarding emergencies.
High School Graduates’ Opinion on Military Profession
According to Prof. Desimir Pajevic, PhD., who was one of the reviewers, this paper was a systematic and theoretical scientific study which explored several psychological (motivating) and socio-demographical characteristics of the young population. It also determined how much those characteristics influenced young people when they made the decision on whether to pursue a military career. Similar results were obtained in comparison with earlier research, and theoretically that is very significant. Despite recent changes within society, the results show that in the last 20 years the sources of young people entering the Military Academy have not significantly changed. The influence of particular psychological and socio-economical factors on the decision whether to join the army also have not changed a lot. The reviewers’ opinion is that these data should be used professionally as much as possible and presented to military and public audiences, including the Serbian Ministry of Education.
The Role of Humanitarian Organizations in Providing for Civilians during Emergencies
Faced with numerous dangers, especially war, mankind has been looking for effective ways to protect civilians and mitigate their sufferings during and after states of emergency. Although the possibility of global war is now small, the contemporary world is overloaded with numerous conflicts of a local and regional character that can be brutal and cruel. The consequences are numerous civilian deaths, destruction of nature and a decline in basic living conditions.
The book is divided into six chapters. The first chapter discusses the phenomenon of danger and states of emergency. It classifies them and assesses new challenges and threats that could provoke different states of emergency. This chapter also examines risks, threats and emergency management procedures and that is a very important field for state and society in order to insure the state’s security. The second chapter discusses the wide and developed network of international and non-governmental humanitarian organizations and groups in the world, its role and protective tasks during emergencies. The third part discusses the establishment and development of the humanitarian and non-governmental organizations, as well as subjects of humanitarian and social protection in Serbia. The fourth chapter includes the development of international humanitarian work, its basic principles, rules and application in the humanitarian work, as well as the role of humanitarian and other organizations within the development of international humanitarian law. The fifth part covers research on the practical application of the theoretical assumptions, regulations, rules and principles of humanitarian organizations’ impact in the region of the former Yugoslavia. The sixth part offers a global evaluation of the current state of the field in the area of humanitarian work, as well as assessments analyzing the work of humanitarian organizations in the future.
The Automobile in the Serbian Armed Forces 1908-1918
This monograph reconstructs the process of implementing and using automobiles in the Kingdom of Serbia’s Armed Forces, 1908-1918. Data were collected from primary historical sources found in the Military-History Institute’s Archive in Belgrade and partly from the Russian State Military Archive of the Russian Empire, memoirs, press and literature. It consists of a foreword, two chapters, conclusion and appendixes. In the first part the author writes about the development of the motoring world, and he emphasizes the military segment, as well as experience gained in the usage of automobiles in one Balkan country (Bulgaria). The second part reconstructs the process of implementing automobiles into the Serbian Armed Forces, starting with the first idea and ending with the establishment of transport units and their usage during the 1912-1918 war. The work pays special attention to reconstructing the staff’s training process for those units. Biographies of the key individuals important to the development of Serbian motoring, as well as short histories on every model of cars used in the SAF and its producers, are given in the appendixes. One specialty of this monograph is that all the photographs of Serbian military cars are collected in one place. This book presents a lot of unknown facts. The most important of these is that the Serbian Armed Forces were the first to use tracks and cars for the rapid transport of troops to the endangered frontline. It was in September 1913, almost a year before the famous “Taxi drivers on the Marna River” showed up. The book is accessible to a broad audience and the author easily managed to describe and explain the process in details, but also to present a professional view to his readers without highly technical discussions. According to the critics, this is the most comprehensive document that deals with this relatively uncharted field of Serbian military history. The book was published on the occasion of the centenary of the introduction of automobiles to the SAF.
War after the War: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians Armed Forces in Kosovo and Metohija and Macedonia 1918-1920
This publication deals with the events that took place in Macedonia, South Serbia and Kosovo and Metohija (South and old Serbia) right after the First World War. This region inherited a powerful legacy from Ottoman rule, years of Balkan nationalisms, rebellions, epidemics and conflicts. The newly founded Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians had to face different traditions, cultures and political ideas and to reconcile numerous antagonisms at the same time – primarily religious and national. Those problems were connected to unsolved disputes that Yugoslavia had with its neighbors. The Yugoslavs had a very clear goal – successful incorporation of those regions into their heterogeneous and ambitious state. The Yugoslav Armed Forces had a mission to establish stable and secure surroundings as the main precondition for spurring economic, cultural and political development. The complexity of political relations in those regions was manifest in everyday life through the Albanian rebellion, the infiltration of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization’s guerrillas (Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација - ВМРО), terrorism, border conflicts and occupation of new regions.
Monte Carlo Modeling of Military Queuing Systems – Challenge of the Initial Transcience
Different military processes, systems and situations, usually described as mass service systems, are complex, have a limited time of engagement, and a high level of load (even overload). The theory of mass service has some disadvantages when trying to model complex systems. Focusing on the stationary regime as the internal work frame, this theory does not offer practical and useful solutions for the transitional working regime or the logical and possible case of overload. Monte Carlo Modeling has been recognized as an efficient method for considering complex systems, but its main problem is producing and monitoring accurate simulation results. Within the simulations of mass service systems there is an additional, specific problem known as the problem of initialization (also described as the start-up, transient, non-stationary or warm-up problem). The limits of the mass service theory have been identified while looking for the credible mass service system in the military field. Likewise, the problems within the Monte Carlo simulation of the mass service system have been recognized. Modeling the transitional working regime was the central source of those problems and limits. This article proposes independent repetitions of the simulation, using the automatic method, along with collecting statistics of unintentional processes as an effective solution for the mass service systems’ simulation which functions under realistic work conditions.
Balkan Pact 1953-54
Experts and the public still have not been able to obtain a comprehensive view of the details, establishment and impact of the Balkan Pact, even though more than 50 years have passed since Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey signed it. Analyses often provided simplistic judgments about the Pact. Additional possibilities to research those issues appeared when previously unused materials from the Military-History Institute’s Archive Fund became available. In addition to the military materials and documents, texts for this Journal come from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at the time called The State Secretariat for Foreign Affairs of the Peoples’ Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) and the Josip Broz Tito Archive (The Yugoslav History Museum) where the Military-History Institute’s researchers found a large number of unused documents that showed how the Government worked at that time (including Tito and his role in those events). All the documents are arranged chronologically, published in whole or in part (military materials) in order to avoid unnecessary technical details that would burden the main idea of this Journal.
Balkan Pact 1953-54
The Military History Department in the SRI’s Defense Policy Sector has published the Collection of Papers from International Scientific Conference “Balkan Pact 1953/54,” which was held in Belgrade on November 9 and 10, 2005, and organized by Military History Institute.This Collection consists of texts written by experts from the Military History Institute, Military Academy, Faculty of Philosophy (University of Belgrade), Institute for Recent Serbian History and experts from Turkey, Greece, Germany, Russia, Israel, Hungary, Bulgaria and Montenegro.
Europeanization of Serbian Armed Forces from 1878 to 1903
In the book Europeanization of the Serbian Army from 1878 to 1903 Dr. Slavica Ratkovic-Kostic writes about the problems that were present during the development of the Serbian Army from 1878 until 1903. She points out the existence, activities and weaknesses of the National (public) army in order to emphasize the need for its Europeanization and modernization. The law on the Army of 1883, which was adopted based on Serbia’s own war experience, insights obtained from large armies during the previous wars in Europe, and contemporary theoretical knowledge in the field of military arts. It was adjusted to the real needs and abilities of the country at a time when Serbia had become equal with other Balkan countries, as well as with the majority of European countries. The law created a mixed system, in which the regular staff was filled with the reserve corps up to war formation. The legislators not only sought to modernize the Army according to European standards, but also to strengthen the ruler’s trust in the Army that could ensure stability for him and the dynasty. By explaining the meaning of the words modernization and europeanization, Ratkovic-Kostic also defined the reach that was gained in the Serbian Army. In the conclusion, she describes the role of the Army in the May Coup d’état of 1903, when the Army opposed the Obrenovic dynasty, in spite of the fact that they formed the Army in order to transform it into a powerful weapon for securing national and political aims.
Academician Dragoljub Zivojinovic (short conclusion from the review)
Woman in Defence: From Past to Present
The book Woman in Defence: From Past to Present draws on empirical research conducted over several years and represents “an original research project with wide scientific scope that includes relevant issues, theoretical and methodological research foundations, and the realization and elaboration of obtained results.” The book consists of six parts: 1) The importance of HR for the successful functioning of the defense system; 2) Historical and scientific-theoretical points of departure for modern modeling of the woman’s role in defense; 3) The scope and models of women’s engagement in the current defense systems; 4) The experience from women’s engagement in the defense system of Serbia and Montenegro; 5) The current situation and possibilities for quality improvement in the fulfillment of the Civil Defense Corps and 6) the possibility of greater engagement of women in the Army. In the conclusion, the author suggests that the rigid division of defense jobs into male and female roles no longer exists and that today new criteria are becoming significant – individual abilities, skills and expert competencies. Only through this system, is it possible for the wider engagement of women in the traditionally male jobs to be part of a rational HR policy in the defense sector. The book has 239 pages and it is the first one that treats this problem in Serbia and the Serbian Army.
Women in the Armed Forces
This book is a collection of texts from the International Conference “Women in the Army”, held in October 2006 and organized by SRI and the OSCE Mission in the Republic of Serbia. The Conference was dedicated to studying women’s place and role in the Serbian Army and the experiences of other countries – Russia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Great Britain and France - as well as the possibilities for engaging women in the Serbian Army. Participants were members of the Government and NGO sector, DCAF, Police Academy, University and all relevant people from the defense system.
Education of Female Cadets at Military Academy
This book represents the partial realization of the Ministry’s Instructions for 2006, which state “that appropriate conditions should be provided for women to be accepted into the military schools, to be educated in certain specialties and that should start during the 2007-8 season”. The inclusion of women into the military educational system marks the first time in our history in which women are able to become candidates for the Military Academy and to be equal in choosing the military profession as their life choice. The book includes arguments for and against women’s education in order to become officers; the interest of girls to be educated at the Military Academy (based on the results of empirical research among high school seniors); reasons why there are some exceptions in education for the specific profiles of women officers; profiles of officers that women should be primarily educated for; forms of education; selection of candidates for the Military Academy; integration into the military collective; some specifics of logistic support; conclusions and suggestions.
Serbian Military Luminaries
As a result of the “Dragojlo Dugic” competition, this monograph was recommended as a valuable project that honors freedom and the revolutionary tradition in the Republic of Serbia. The specific values and social norms that significantly influenced individual lives as well as the system of values and dedication inspiring the fight for national interests and goals were identified in the form of this biographic lexicon. Following the concept of these luminaries and considering the historical distance that is necessary in order to identify persons and formulate relatively steady statements that would last, the book covers the period from the arrival of the Serbs in the Balkans until 1918. The basic criteria for the choice of individuals included in this book was their theoretical and practical contribution in reaching and maintaining the highest national values, through direct participation in the wars against the invaders (enemy).